Bonfire Night: A Celebration of Guy Fawkes and the Failed Gunpowder Plot
Who was Guy Fawkes?
Guy Fawkes was born in 1570 in York. Born as the second of four children to Edward Fawkes and Edith Fawkes. Both his parents were regular communicants of the Church of England as were his paternal grandparents. Guy’s mother’s family were recusant Catholics and his cousin, Richard Cowling, became a Jesuit Priest.
Although Guy Fawkes is by far and away the most famous of the group, he was not the instigator or leader of the Gunpowder Plot and that place belonged to Robert Catesby. Catesby was a charismatic Catholic figure who had reputation for speaking out against the crown. After the protestant James I was crowned king in 1603, Catesby planned to kill him by blowing up the House of Lords with gunpowder during the State Opening of Parliament. Since James I was much less tolerant that his predecessors of Catholicism the act of blowing up parliament would cause a popular revolt during which a Catholic monarch would be restored to the English throne. In total there were 13 conspirators, following the development of his plan Catesby recruited fellow Catholics and sympathisers to his cause. These plotters were: John Wright, Christopher Wright, Thomas Wintour, Robert Wintour, Thomas Percy, Guy Fawkes, Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham. Fawkes was given charge of the explosives because he had 10 years military experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in suppression of the Dutch Revolt.
The Gunpowder Plot
Generally the plot was very simple, to sneak gunpowder through the ducts and cellar underneath Parliament and light the explosives during the State Opening of Parliament and therefore killing James I. Of course the plot was famously foiled, but how would anyone know or even suspect the plot in the first place? The answer is an anonymous letter that was received by William Parker, 4th Baron of Monteagle (Tresham’s brother-in-law).
The letter is as follows:
My Lord, out of the love I bear to some of your friends, I have a care of your preservation. Therefore I would advise you, as you tender your life, to devise some excuse to shift your attendance at this parliament; for God and man hath concurred to punish the wickedness of this time. And think not slightly of this advertisement, but retire yourself into your country where you may expect the event in safety. For though there be no appearance of any stir, yet I say they shall receive a terrible blow this Parliament; and yet they shall not see who hurts them. This counsel is not to be condemned because it may do you good and can do you no harm; for the danger is passed as soon as you have burnt the letter. And I hope God will give you the grace to make good use of it, to whose holy protection I commend you.
Antonia, Fraser. (2005) The Gunpowder Plot, Phoenix.
Transport for London: A History of the London Underground Part I – The First Metropolitan Railway 1853-1863
Transport for London: A History of the London Underground Part I – The First Metropolitan Railway 1853-1863
For any Londoner the ”tube” plays a major part of our lives, we use it everyday to travel to work and back every weekday and probably late at night when we are half drunk from the pub on a Thursday night. The modern day London Underground tube network has served the capital for over 150 years when it initially begun as the metropolitan railway and ever since then it has expanded into a series of ant tunnels below the capital to take anyone within Greater London wherever they want to go. After living in London for quite a while now and probably taking the tube for granted I have decided to write this article which will delve through the history of the London Underground Network which has helped develop and expand the capital to what it is today.
The Metropolitan Railway
Back in the Victorian Era, London was experiencing expansion never before seen, following the period of industrialisation the inner city was becoming busier and busier, roads could no handle the influx of people and horse carriages which flooded the streets of the capital. The surface of London was bustling, the first half of the nineteenth saw huge growth in both resident and commuting population and therefore questions were being asking regarding the future for London without sufficient means of transporting these commuters from their residents to the heart of the city.
The London Population in Victorian Times
Construction and Opening of the Met
Before the metropolitan railway was proposed, most railways within London were independent and only served certain areas, for example the Bayswater, Paddington and Holborn Bridge Railway Company also served them areas in the West end of London. The costs were enormous and plans were cutback to reduce this by cancelling the production of the railway so reach south of Farringdon, this was also bolstered by Britain’s participation in the Crimean War at the time so finances were prioritised towards the war effort in Ukraine. The Railway was eventually completed and opened in January, 1863 after inspections from the Board of Trade in December, 1862.
Birth of the London Underground
The project was primarily financed by the City of London, it was viewed as an investment for the City as the problematic city congestion was having a damaging effect on business. The image above illustrates the first stage of the line before further expansion in the next few years to Moorgate and further east into the City of London. The journey itself stretched six kilometres and took just 18 minutes from one end to the other. The line carried 38,000 passengers on its first day and 9.5 million passengers in its first 12 months, these figures illustrated the enormous success of the first London underground line and showed the necessities of the line, reducing traffic and congestion on the surfaces and helped the capital control the capacity and influx of people migrating to the city and commuting.
For such a major project in a congested city it is difficult to comprehend the complexities of building these tunnels under the city, using the cut-and-cover method to dig out the tunnels, the tunnels were then built with bricks and then reinforced by strengthening beams and iron girders with the original trench. The metropolitan railway would be the start for the London Underground and the complexities of the London Underground had to start somewhere.
Wait! There’s more…
Further articles will be written by myself on the origins and history of the London underground, the next part will involve the expansion of the Met to accommodate those West in Hammersmith and those who need to travel further into the City of London East of Moorgate to produce the ”inner circle”. These expansions thus begin to formulate the modern London tube network as we know it today with several different lines crossing one another for the most efficient method of transport in our busy capital.
Just recently, North Korea announced its first successful test of a Hydrogen Bomb, showcasing their advancement into the age of thermonuclear weapons. This announcement cause a tremor in the national security of nearby countries such as Japan and North Korea as well as a 5.1 magnitude earthquake. The test was actually the fourth from North Korea since 2006 and if the claim is true then it would showcase the state’s advancement from the atomic age. Reports claim that North Korea may still be time away to produce nuclear weapons small enough to attach to a ballistic missile but it seems they are pouring many of the resources to catch up with the western world. North Korean state media stated before the test that the country ”deserved to hold nuclear weapons… to counter nuclear threats by the US.”
The significance of this is of a certain magnitude, North Korean want to be big players in the world of global politics or… they want to obliterate those of the western world who threaten their way of life and government. Either way its unsettling to think a country ruled under one absolute leader could possess thermonuclear weapons with such unpredictability. At least during the Cold War their were attempts at diplomacy during the nuclear arms race and both the US and Soviet superpowers remained in close contact to attempt to make agreements, seemed they liked to keep their enemies closer. North Korea is so mysterious and unresponsive it is relatively difficult to acquire intelligence on the country and therefore ironically leaving the surrounding nations in the dark.
A-Bomb or H-Bomb?
There is also a lot of speculation that the bomb detonated this week wasn’t actually a hydrogen bomb, the yield of the bomb and the seismic activity of the earthquake begs a traditional atomic nuclear weapon. Atomic bombs tend to use a heavy unstable metallic material such as uranium or plutonium, they use nuclear fission which means a trigger is set to split the atoms of the radioactive isotopes within the material and other extraneous energy. Hydrogen bombs typically use a fusion method, these are smashed together instead of splitting apart, combining the atoms into larger atoms fuelled by hydrogen isotopes. Hydrogen bombs were discovered soon after the atomic weapon and it was discovered the yield of these thermonuclear weapons were tens of hundred times more powerful then their atomic counterparts, as was demonstrated with the first full thermonuclear by the name of Ivy Mike in November, 1952. The difference between these two weapons actually shows us that North Korea haven’t quite understood the concept of a hydrogen bomb, or at least they may be false claims, either way their experimentation with these weapons is never good news.
Nuclear tests have normally been a thing of the past, most prominently in the 1950s, they were well documented and broadcast mainly for a global publicity stunt to showcase the power of the country. They were used as an experiment to test the yield and effectiveness of their nuclear weapons, these tests were overtly political and most states publicly declared their nuclear status. The first nuclear test was the Trinity Test on July 16, 1945, a few weeks before the United States dropped nuclear bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As we can trace back from North Korea the primary intention of the nuclear test was most likely for publicity reasons but it also demonstrates that the small secluded military state has grown to become a nuclear competitor and it is likely action may have to be taken soon as North Korea’s successful nuclear experiments threat the local nations, its not wrong to assume South Korea aren’t slightly anxious from this test. Kim Jong-Un will probably be pleased with the initial reaction this test has created, but with mixed emotions this test has caused a tremor within international politics.