Transport for London: A History of the London Underground Part I – The First Metropolitan Railway 1853-1863
For any Londoner the ”tube” plays a major part of our lives, we use it everyday to travel to work and back every weekday and probably late at night when we are half drunk from the pub on a Thursday night. The modern day London Underground tube network has served the capital for over 150 years when it initially begun as the metropolitan railway and ever since then it has expanded into a series of ant tunnels below the capital to take anyone within Greater London wherever they want to go. After living in London for quite a while now and probably taking the tube for granted I have decided to write this article which will delve through the history of the London Underground Network which has helped develop and expand the capital to what it is today.
The Metropolitan Railway
Back in the Victorian Era, London was experiencing expansion never before seen, following the period of industrialisation the inner city was becoming busier and busier, roads could no handle the influx of people and horse carriages which flooded the streets of the capital. The surface of London was bustling, the first half of the nineteenth saw huge growth in both resident and commuting population and therefore questions were being asking regarding the future for London without sufficient means of transporting these commuters from their residents to the heart of the city.
The London Population in Victorian Times
Construction and Opening of the Met
Before the metropolitan railway was proposed, most railways within London were independent and only served certain areas, for example the Bayswater, Paddington and Holborn Bridge Railway Company also served them areas in the West end of London. The costs were enormous and plans were cutback to reduce this by cancelling the production of the railway so reach south of Farringdon, this was also bolstered by Britain’s participation in the Crimean War at the time so finances were prioritised towards the war effort in Ukraine. The Railway was eventually completed and opened in January, 1863 after inspections from the Board of Trade in December, 1862.
Birth of the London Underground
The project was primarily financed by the City of London, it was viewed as an investment for the City as the problematic city congestion was having a damaging effect on business. The image above illustrates the first stage of the line before further expansion in the next few years to Moorgate and further east into the City of London. The journey itself stretched six kilometres and took just 18 minutes from one end to the other. The line carried 38,000 passengers on its first day and 9.5 million passengers in its first 12 months, these figures illustrated the enormous success of the first London underground line and showed the necessities of the line, reducing traffic and congestion on the surfaces and helped the capital control the capacity and influx of people migrating to the city and commuting.
For such a major project in a congested city it is difficult to comprehend the complexities of building these tunnels under the city, using the cut-and-cover method to dig out the tunnels, the tunnels were then built with bricks and then reinforced by strengthening beams and iron girders with the original trench. The metropolitan railway would be the start for the London Underground and the complexities of the London Underground had to start somewhere.
Wait! There’s more…
Further articles will be written by myself on the origins and history of the London underground, the next part will involve the expansion of the Met to accommodate those West in Hammersmith and those who need to travel further into the City of London East of Moorgate to produce the ”inner circle”. These expansions thus begin to formulate the modern London tube network as we know it today with several different lines crossing one another for the most efficient method of transport in our busy capital.